Glossary

The Information Technology and Telecommunications sector is a specialized technical sector, This page contains a glossary of the terms commonly used within this sector for easy reference. ​​

2G

Second-generation mobile network or service. Generic name for second generation networks, for example GSM.

3G

Third-generation mobile network or service. Generic name for third- generation networks or services under the IMT-2000 banner, for example W-CDMA and CDMA2000 lx. 3GPP.

4G

Stands for the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. Speed requirements for 4G service set the peak download speed at 100 Mbps for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbps for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users).

5G

5G is a packet switched wireless system with wide area coverage and high throughput and 5G wireless uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and millimeter wireless that enables frequency band of 2-8 GHz.

Accelerated dial-up

A dial-up internet access service that utilizes integrated software to provide dial-up that is quicker than normal dial-up internet.

Access ancillary

Arrangements that are specifically created to provide an ISP with the ability to connect to end-users. Access Ancillary arrangements tend to have aggregation and user authentication capabilities. Examples include Bell Gateway Access Service (GAS) and Cable Third Party Internet Access (TPIA).

Access Control

The prevention of unauthorized use of a resource, including the prevention of use of a resource in an unauthorized manner. Limiting the flow of information from the resources of a system only to authorized persons, programs, processes or other system resources on a network.

Access Control List

A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to have access to a resource.

Access Control Policy

The set of rules that define the conditions under which an access may take place.

Accessibility

Accessibility refers to the accessibility of web pages to all users. People with impaired sight, hearing, manual dexterity or cognitive function encounter barriers when they attempt to use the Internet.

Accessindependent VolP services

Services that enable customers to make and/or receive real time voice calls over an Internet access service, and/or from parties that subscribe to a PSTN service. An access-independent VolP service is provided independent of the underlying Internet access service operating and providing identical service features and similar quality over any Internet access service of sufficient bandwidth.

Accidental Threats

Threats that exist with no premeditated intent. Examples of realized, accidental threats include system malfunctions, operational blunders and software bugs.

Account

The basket of products, services, and all other revenue-generating items billed to a single entity. That single entity may be a business, business unit, group, organization, private individual or other unit. Multiple layers of accounts are sometimes maintained, particularly in the case of business units or franchises billed separately but whose relationship to a single corporate entity is tracked.

Accountability

The property that ensures that the actions of an entity may be traced uniquely to the entity.

Accounting rate

In international PSTN communication, the system administered by the ITU which sets out the pricing principles to be used in interconnection agreements between international PSTN operators. Per-minute accounting rates are designed to enable revenue for international calls to be shared between the operator in the country that originates traffic and the operator in the country that delivers the traffic; because accounting rates theoretically define the full cost of each international call, a settlement rate of one-half of each accounting rate is normally assigned to be paid by the originating service provider to the terminating service provider. At the end of each year, each pair of service providers under the accounting system settles its international interconnection payments, and the service provider with the negative balance of trade pays the net difference to the service provider with the positive balance of trade. With private intercarrier arrangements and FCC benchmark rates, the accounting rate system is today one of three major systems used to determine international interconnection payments.

Advanced Mobile Phone System

(AMPS) A communications protocol that uses radio frequencies in the 800 M (megahertz) frequency band to provide mobile telecom services, including interoperability with the wireline PSTN (public switched telephone network). Introduced in the early 1980s, AMPS was among the earliest widely deployed cellular telephone protocols; with TACS (Total Access Communication System) and NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), AMPS was among the primary first generation (1G) analog mobile services. AMPS implementations include EAMPS (extended AMPS), which uses an expanded spectrum range, and N-AMPS (narrowband AMPS), which triples the original implementation's voice compression; D-AMPS (digital AMPS), a second-generation (2G) mobile protocol, was the first widely-deployed digital implementation of AMPS.

Advanced technology

A technology that is still immature but promises to deliver significant value, or that has some technical maturity but still has relatively few users; also known as an "emerging technology." Current examples include artificial intelligence, biometrics, grid computing and wearable computers.
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Advertised throughput

For connectivity services such as Internet access, the throughput speed (in bits, or some multiple thereof) associated with a product offering. Advertised throughput may be, but is not necessarily, guaranteed contractually to the purchasing customer.
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American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

Is a standard table of seven-bit designations for digital representation of uppercase and lowercase Roman letters, numbers and special control characters in teletype, computer and word processor systems. Some IBM systems use similar code called Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC). Since most computer systems use a full byte to send an ASCII character, many hardware and software companies have made their own nonstandard and mutually incompatible extensions of the official ASCII 128-character set into a I 256-character set.
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Analogue

Transmission of voice and images using electrical signals. Analogue mobile cellular systems include AMPS, NMT and TACS.
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Analogue network/Analog network

A telecommunication network in which information is conveyed as a continuously varying electronic signal.
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Analytics

Analytics has emerged as a catch-all term for a variety of different business intelligence (BI) - and application-related initiatives. For some, it is the process of analyzing information from a domain, such as website analytics. For others, it is applying the breadth of BI capabilities to a specific content area (for example, sales, service, supply chain and so on). BI vendors use the "analytics" moniker to differentiate their products from the competition. Increasingly, "analytics" is used to describe statistical and mathematical data analysis that clusters, segments, scores and predicts what scenarios are most likely to happen.
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Annualization

Translation or conversion of data for part of a year, for more than a year, or which fluctuates over the course of a year into an annual or one-year equivalent amount or rate.
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Annualization basis

The methodological basis on which a set of data is annualized; when data are available for multiple points in a single year, the annualization basis is the number of points used in annualizing the data. A common annualization basis is the thirteen-point average, calculated as the mean of data points at an equivalent day for thirteen consecutive months, such as the first day of January to January.
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Anti-Virus program

Programs capable of detecting, removing, and protecting against various forms of malicious code or malware, including viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, and adware.
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Applet

Is a small program that runs within an application. Applets are commonly used to make otherwise static Web pages more interactive.
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Application

All the programmable elements—error-checking, session management, message flow, software, user interface—which, together, make use of network connectivity as a platform upon which to deliver usable services such as voice telephony or the Web to end users.
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Architecture

1) In reference to computers, software or networks, the overall design of a computing system and the logical and physical interrelationships between its components. The architecture specifies the hardware, software, access methods and protocols used throughout the system. 

2) A framework and set of guidelines to build new systems. IT architecture is a series of principles, guidelines or rules used by an enterprise to direct the process of acquiring, building, modifying and interfacing IT resources throughout the enterprise. These resources can include equipment, software, communications, development methodologies, modeling tools and organizational structures.
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Artificial Intelligence

(Al) Is technology that appears to emulate human performance typically by, learning, coming to its own conclusions, appearing to understand complex content, engaging in natural dialogs with people, enhancing human cognitive performance (also known as cognitive computing) or replacing people on execution of nonroutine tasks.
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Assistive technologies

Assistive technologies comprise software and hardware that is intended to assist disabled people with their daily activities. In the area of information technology, some examples are screen readers, screen magnifying glasses, special keys and speech input software.
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

A high bandwidth, low-delay, connection-oriented, packet-like switching and multiplexing technique.
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Asynchronous transmission

A process in which each information character, and sometimes each; word or small block, is individually synchronized, usually using start and stop elements.
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Attack

The activities undertaken to bypass or exploit deficiencies in a system's security mechanisms. By a direct attack on a system they exploit deficiencies in the underlying algorithms, principles, or properties of a security mechanism. Indirect attacks are performed when they bypass the mechanism, or when they make the system use the mechanism incorrectly.
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Attribute Authority(AA)

An authority which assigns privileges by issuing attribute certificates. An entity trusted by one or more entities to create and sign attribute certificates. Note – a Certified Authority (CA) may also be an Attributed Authority (AA).
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Audio Messaging Interchange Specification(AMTS)

Is an enhanced key system feature for voice call processing that enables enterprise locations to transfer and forward voice messages between systems. It is a voice processing standard that specifies the procedures to network voice processing systems, regardless of who manufactures the system.
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Augmented Reality (AR)

Augmented Reality is the realtime use of information in the form of text, graphics, audio and other virtual enhancements integrated with real-world objects. It is this "real world" element that differentiates AR from virtual reality.
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Authentication

The process of corroborating an identity. A Authentication can be unilateral or mutual. Unilateral authentication provides assurance of the identity of only one principal. Mutual authentication provides assurance of the identities of both principals. The provision of assurance of the claimed identity of an entity.
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Authentication service

A mechanism, analogous to the use of passwords on time- sharing systems, for the secure authentication of the identity of network clients by servers and vice versa, without presuming the operating system integrity of either.
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Authorization

Is defined as a process ensuring that correctly authenticated users can access only those resources for which the owner has given them approval.
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Automated backup

Delivers the most basic form of storage availability — recoverable data. Backup design must address multiple elements (e.g., hardware, network, file system and application) across heterogeneous platforms and geographically dispersed sites.
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Autonomous System Number(ASN)

Is a number assigned to a local network, registered into the carrier's routing community and placed under the umbrella of an administrative domain called an autonomous system.
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Autonomous System (AS)

In BGP routing, an Autonomous System is a collection of Intent Protocol routers, identified by their IP prefixes, whose single and clearly-defined routing policy is coordinated by an administrative entity formed by one or more network operators. Each AS is identified by a globally unique, two-byte AS Number (ASN) assigned and managed by a regional numbering registry such as the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN), the AsiaPacific Network Information Center (APNIC), or Roseaux IP Europeans Network Co-ordination Centre (RIPE NCC). To qualify for an AS assignment, an Internet network must normally have at least two separate connections to the Internet. AS Numbers began at 1 and ran to over 14001 at this writing.
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Availability

Is the assurance that an infrastructure has suitable recoverability and protection from system failures, natural disasters or malicious.
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Average revenue'per minute/message (ARPM)

This is a measure of the average revenues a service provider earns on a per minute or message basis. ARPM is commonly used by wireless and, long-distance service providers.
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Average revenue per user(ARPU)

Is a measure of revenues on a per user or subscriber basis. The ARPU values presented in the telecommunications monitoring report are based on average annual monthly data.
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Backbone

The core network segments which connect two or more network nodes together for transiting network traffic between edge nodes. See also Internet backbone, long-haul backbone, short-haul backbone, voice backbone.
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Backup server

A software or hardware system that copies or "shadows" the contents of a server, providing redundancy.
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Bandwidth

The maximum data-carrying capability of a point-to-point telecommunications connection because of the range of frequencies available to be occupied by signals, usually expressed in terms of Hertz (Hz) in analogy systems and as several bits per second in digital systems. At the capacity layer, bandwidth is measured about theoretical maximum throughput based on existing technology; at the connectivity layer, bandwidth is measured with regard to the network segment's maximum throughput based on the provisioned, installed equipment in service.
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Base station

A transmission and reception station in a fixed location, consisting of one or more receive/transmit antenna, microwave dish, and electronic circuitry, used to handle cellular traffic. It serves as a bridge between all mobile users in a cell and connects mobile calls to the mobile switching center.
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Base station

A transmission and reception station in a fixed location, consisting of one or more receive/transmit antenna, microwave dish, and electronic circuitry, used to handle cellular traffic. It serves as a bridge between all mobile users in a cell and connects mobile calls to the mobile switching center.

Basic Input Output System (BIOS)

The part of an operating system that links the specific hardware devices to the software. It obtains the buffers required to send information from a program to the hardware/desktop receiving the information.

Big data

Is high-volume, high-velocity and/or high-variety information assets that demand cost- effective, innovative forms of information processing that enable enhanced insight, decision making, and process automation.

Billed minute

One minute of network traffic for which the customer is billed, usually the customer having generated or demanded that traffic. In voice calls, billed minutes correspond to conversation minutes, since they exclude call set-up time and call signaling.

Billing address

The most precise civic address at which a given telecommunication facility or service is billed, independently of the site at which the facility terminates or the service is delivered.

Binary code

Is the representation of quantities expressed in the base- 2 number system.

Bioinformatics

Solutions and service providers support research, development, the application of computational tools, and approaches for expanding the use of biological, medical, behavioral and health data. These systems can acquire, store, organize, archive, analyze and visualize data, and are integral to R&D drug development and therapy programs.

Biometric authentication

Methods that use biometric characteristics or traits to verify users' claimed identities when users access endpoint devices, networks, networked applications or Web applications. Across a wide range of use cases, any biometric authentication method may be used in one-to-one comparison mode (when the user enters a user ID), or one-to- many search mode (when the user simply presents his or her biometric characteristic, with no explicit claim of identity, and the system determines his or her user ID from a range of candidates).

Bit

A bit is the primary unit of electronic, digital data. Written in base, binary language as a "1" or a "0".

Bit/s

Bits per second. Measurement of the transmission speed of units of data (bits) over a network. Also, Kbit/s: kilobits (1'000) per second; Mbit/s: megabits (1'000'000) per second, and Gbit/s: Gigabits 1'000'000'000) per second.

Blade server

Small form factor servers, housed in a chassis, that provide tightly integrated power, cooling, input/output (I/O) connectivity and management capabilities that enable the easy addition of new components and replacement of failed or outdated technology.

Blockchain

A type of distributed ledger in which value exchange transactions (in bitcoin or other token) are sequentially grouped into blocks. Each block is chained to the previous block and immutably recorded across a peer-to-peer network, using cryptographic trust and assurance mechanisms. Depending on the implementation, transactions can include programmable behavior. One of the most well known use cases for this technology is the cryptocurrency Bitcoin.

Bluetooth

Is a low-power wireless networking technology operating in the 2.4 GHz unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. There are two classes of Bluetooth device — Class 1 devices have higher output power and a range of about 100 meters, and Class 2 devices have lower power and a range of about 10 meters. Bluetooth enables ad hoc networking of up to eight devices (supporting voice and data).

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)routing

BGP's BGP4 implementation is the standard inter-domain routing protocol used for passing traffic between autonomous systems (ASES on the Internet. An Internet network operator's ability to route traffic to and from other Internet ASES therefore requires the ability to use BGP routing. BGP is often sold bundled with Internet access as Internet transport, especially as a wholesale product.

Bring your own device (BYOD):

An alternative strategy allowing employees, business partners and other users to utilize a personally selected and purchased client device to execute enterprise applications and access data. Typically, it spans smartphones and tablets, but the strategy may also be used for PCs.

Broadband

Generally, a data access link, especially an Internet access link, usually defined in terms of the minimum amount of bandwidth to which the end user has access, and whose characteristics facilitate the use of advanced telecommunications applications and services. Fixed broadband is implemented through technologies such as digital subscriber line (DSL), cable modem, fiber to the home (FTTH), metro Ethernet, wireless local area networks (WLAN) etc..

Broadcast

1) Delivery of a transmission to two or more stations at the same time, such as over a bus-type local network or by satellite. 2) Protocol mechanism whereby group and universal addressing is supported.

Broadcast Distribution Undertaking (BDU) revenues

Revenues generated from BDU operations excluding Internet and telecommunication services. BDU revenues include revenues from basic programming service packages, discretionary programming service packages (programming services not on the basic service) and exempt and non- programming services. Application that retrieves WWW documents specified by URLs from an HTTP server on the internet. Displays the retrieved documents according to the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

Browser

Application that retrieves WWW documents specified by URLs from an HTTP server on the internet. Displays the retrieved documents according to the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

Bundles

an arrangement under which a subscriber is provided two or more service elements, under a rate structure which provides a financial or other benefit that is contingent on the use, consumption of or subscription to any or all service elements in the bundle and that would not otherwise be available.

Business Intelligence (BI)

Is an umbrella term that includes the applications, infrastructure and tools, and best practices that enable access to and analysis of information to improve and optimize decisions and performance.

Business Process Outsourcing (PBO)

The delegation of one or more IT-intensive business processes to an external provider that, in turn, owns, administers and manages the selected processes based on defined and measurable performance metrics.

Byte

1) A set of bits that represent a single character. A byte is composed of 8 bits. 2) A bit string that is operated upon as a unit and the size of which is independent of redundancy or framing techniques.

Cable Data

A system for transferring data over a Coax or Hybrid Fiber Coax cable television distribution system.

Cable modem

A technology that allows high speed interactive services, including internet access, to be delivered over a cable TV network.

Cache

Defined as a temporary storage area for instructions and data near a computer's central processing unit (CPU), usually implemented in high speed memory. It replicates information from main memory or storage in a way that facilitates quicker access, using fewer resources than the original source.

Caller ID

A telephone service that records the telephone numbers of incoming calls; it is a form of automatic number identification (ANI). Caller ID systems can be integrated with customer databases to streamline call management processes.

Carrier Network Infrastructure (CNI)

Can be defined as a combination of the following basic functions: Voice switching, control and applications, optical transport, service provider routers and switches, mobile core, mobile radio, fixed access.

Cell

Defined as the area covered by one fixed BTS in a cellular radio network. It may vary in size from less than a 0.5-km radius to more than a 120-km radius, depending on technology, capacity, atmospheric conditions and power.

Cellular radio

Describes a method of increasing the number of simultaneous radio conversations that can be supported by a fixed number of radio frequency (RF) channels by limiting the range of transmitters to a single cell, to which a proportion of the available channels is allocated. Adjacent cells are allocated to a different set of RF channels to avoid interference and conversation blocking

Cellular to Wi-Fi authentication

The ability for dual-mode smartphones to move freely between cellular and Wi-Fi connectivity for voice and data applications. As part of the 802.11u standard, this multivendor and multiple physical layer authentication allows cellular connections to be transferred to Wi-Fi, as well as among multiple Wi-Fi vendors from one installation to another, whether it is a hot spot or, ultimately, within an enterprise.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The component of a computer system that controls the interpretation and execution of instructions. The term "processor" is often used to refer to a CPU.

Certificate

A set of security-relevant data issued by a security authority or trusted third party, together with security information which is used to provide the integrity and data origin authentication services for the data (security certificate – ITU-T X.810). The term refers to "public key" certificates which are values that represent an owner's public key (and other optional information) as verified and signed by a trusted authority in an unforgeable format.

Change management

The automated support for development, rollout and maintenance of system components.

Channel

One of a number of discrete frequency ranges utilized by a base station to transmit and receive information from cellular terminals (such as mobile handsets).

Channel integration

Refers to strategies aimed at consolidating — either physically or logically — customer information and its use to provide an all-encompassing view of the customer.

Circuit

A continuous electrical connection between any two points.

Circuit board

Flat card with connections for electronic components; part of an electronic system.

Client

System or a program that requests the activity of one or more other systems or programs, called servers, to accomplish specific tasks.

Client Server

The splitting of an application into tasks performed on separate computers connected over a network. In most cases, the "client" is desktop computing device (e.g., a PC) or a program "served" by another networked computing device (i.e., the "server" ).

Clock/ Clocking

Repetitive, regularly timed signals used to control synchronous processes.

Cloud Access Security Brokers (CASBs)

On-premises, or cloud-based security policy enforcement points, placed between cloud service consumers and cloud service providers to combine and interject enterprise security policies as the cloud-based resources are accessed. CASBs consolidate multiple types of security policy enforcement. Example security policies include authentication, single sign-on, authorization, credential mapping, device profiling, encryption, tokenization, logging, alerting, malware detection/prevention and so on.

Cloud application development services

Tool Offerings delivered as a service and used to create custom software applications deployed on an application platform as a service aPaaS), a cloud-enabled application platform (CEAP) or infrastructure as a service.

Cloud computing

A style of computing in which scalable and elastic IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service using Internet technologies.

Cloud engineering

The process of designing the systems necessary to leverage the power and economics of cloud resources to solve business problems.

Cloud file sharing

Refers to a range of cloud services that allows people to store and synchronize documents, photos, videos and other files in the cloud—and share them with other people. These services also allow users to share and synchronize data among multiple devices for a single owner.

Cloud Printing Services (CPS)

Are hosted cloud computing offerings that enable users to print documents and other materials on any device associated with the cloud.

Cloud services brokerage (CSB)

An IT role and business model in which a company or other entity adds value to one or more (public or private) cloud services on behalf of one or more consumers of that service via three primary roles including aggregation, integration and customization brokerage.

Common Information Model (CIM)

A modeling schema that describes managed system, hardware, and software objects. CIM is a component of the WebBased Enterprise Management (WBEM) initiative, an emerging Web-oriented system management standard controlled by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF).

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

A data-passing specification used when a Web server must send or receive data from an application such as a database.

Communicat ions as a Service (CaaS)

This is communications functionality that may include telephony, messaging, conferencing, presence and notification, based on assets owned, managed and collocated by third parties.

Community cloud

A shared cloud computing service environment that is targeted to a limited set of organizations or employees (such as banks or heads of trading firms). The organizing principle for the community will vary, but the members of the community generally share similar security, privacy, performance and compliance requirements.

Compliance statement

TSPs are required to provide a compliance statement attesting to the accuracy of the financial information being provided including the Annual Revenue Report.

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)

A group of experts who to study internet security vulnerabilities, and to provide assistance to online sites that become victims of cracker or hacker attacks. Commonly, it offers a 24-hour emergency response service, shares information for improving cyber security, and coordinates responses to cybersecurity threats.

Confidentiali ty Service

The confidentiality service provides protection against unauthorized disclosure of exchanged data. The following kinds of confidentiality services are distinguished: selective field confidentiality; connection confidentiality; data flow confidentiality.

Connection

A unique, active service access point to a network. This includes machine-to-machine network access as well as human access. In mobile networks, this may be taken to refer to an active subscriber identity module (SIM). A single subscriber may operate several different cellular connections and multiple connections may be associated with one customer or one mobile device.

Connectivity

The specific protocols, services, and signaling systems which allow analogue and digital traffic to move across physical capacity in such a way as to allow applications such as voice telephony or the Web to take place. Connectivity is the second of the three-slice vertical capacity connectivityapplications model used in the CRTC's telecom monitoring process and corresponds to layers two (data link) and three (network) in the OSI reference model. Connectivity is the capability to provide, to endusers, connections to the internet or other communication networks.

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

An asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) service category, defined by the ATM Forum, that guarantees a constant bandwidth with low delay, jitter and cell loss. Circuit emulation is a typical application.

Content providers

Companies that create and offer content, such as graphic products, ringtones, games, news, information and entertainment services.

Convergence

A term used to describe a variety of technological and market trends involving the blurring of previously distinct lines between market segments such as cable television, telephony and Internet access, all of which can now be provided through a variety of different network platforms.

Cookie

Permanent code placed in a file on a computer's hard disk by a website that the computer user has visited. The code uniquely identifies, or "registers," that user and can be accessed for number of marketing and sitetracking purposes.

Country code

Codes corresponding to the world numbering plan start with a single - digit that identifies a geographical area. This can be followed by one or two extra digits.

Coverage

Refers to the range of a mobile cellular network, measured in terms of geographic coverage (the percentage of the territorial area covered by mobile cellular) or population coverage (the percentage of the population within range of a mobile cellular network).

Credentials

Data that is transferred to establish the claimed identity of an entity.

Criminals of Information Technology

They are people with bad intentions these criminals take several forms of cyberattacks like the APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) attack, DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) attack, destruction or theft of sensitive data, intrusion of networks, breach of software security, electronic eavesdropping (which includes sabotage and stealing telephone calls, and the cost often paid by the victims, whether individuals or institutions).

Critical Information Infrastructure (CII)

The systems, services, networks and infrastructures that form a vital part of a nation's economy and society, providing essential goods and services. Their disruption or destruction would have a serious impact on vital societal functions.

Cryptography

The discipline which embodies principles, means, and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification and/or prevent its unauthorized use. (Cryptography determines the methods used in encipherment and decipherment). An attack on a cryptographic principle, means, or method is cryptanalysis.

Cyber Incident Response Team (CIRT)

Also known as a "computer incident response team," this group is responsible for responding to security breaches, viruses and other potentially catastrophic incidents in enterprises that face significant security risks. In addition to technical specialists capable of dealing with specific threats, it should include experts who can guide enterprise executives on appropriate communication in the wake of such incidents.

Cyber library

An electronic version of a physical library that is implemented on behalf of workers for information selfservice.

Cyber Security

The collection of tools, policies, security concepts, security safeguards, guidelines, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance and technologies that can be used to protect the cyber environment and organization and user’s assets. Organization and user’s assets include connected computing devices, personnel, infrastructure, applications, services, telecommunications systems, and the totality of transmitted and/or stored information in the cyber environment. Cybersecurity strives to ensure the attainment and maintenance of the security properties of the organization and user’s assets against relevant security risks in the cyber environment. The general security objectives comprise Availability, Integrity, which may include authenticity and nonrepudiation. and confidentiality. In addition to adding a framework that determines the roles and responsibilities of all parties involved in the implementation of the national cyber security strategy and provides a clear mechanism for communication and coordination among all parties and during the cycle of the strategy that reflects the national strategy, activities and implementation tools.

Cyberspace or Cyberspace Environment

The virtual space for computer systems and electronic networks, where information stored electronically and directly connect to the network, it is an intangible space including data such as personal information, electronic transactions, intellectual property and other related topics.

Dark data

Information assets organizations collect, process and store during regular business activities, but generally fail to use for other purposes (for example, analytics, business relationships and direct monetizing).

Dashboards

Reporting mechanisms that aggregate and display metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs), enabling them to be examined at a glance by all manner of users before further exploration via additional business analytics (BA) tools.

Data application

Any application or service which resides on top of a connectivity layer and relies upon a digital interface to facilitate user interaction as part of a specific function or set of functions. Data applications are available on a variety of platforms, including mobile telephones; examples of mobile data applications include SMS and WAP.

Data broker

A business that aggregates information from a variety of sources; processes it to enrich, cleanse or analyze it; and licenses it to other organizations. Data brokers can also license another company's data directly, or process another organization's data to provide them with enhanced results. Data is typically accessed via an application programming interface (API), and frequently involves subscription type contracts. Data typically is not "sold" (i.e., its ownership transferred), but rather it is licensed for particular or limited uses.

Data center

The department in an enterprise that houses and maintains backend information technology (IT) systems and data stores—its mainframes, servers and databases. In the days of large, centralized IT operations, this department and all the systems resided in one physical place, hence the name data center.

Data deduplication

A form of compression that eliminates redundant data on a sub file level, improving storage utilization. In this process, only one copy of the data is stored; all the redundant data will be eliminated, leaving only a pointer to the previous copy of the data

Data hosting and storage

Service whereby a customer contracts for data to be stored on a third-party computer or other device connected to a network, such that the data hosted and/or stored is either publicly or privately reachable via some local- or wide-area network. Data hosting charges often include charges for network connectivity and/or network traffic, particularly in the case of the Internet; Web hosting is an example of data hosting.

Data Loss Protection (DLP)

Describes a set of technologies and inspection techniques used to classify information content contained within an object — such as a file, email, packet, application or data store — while at rest (in storage), in use (during an operation) or in transit (across a network)

Data migration

The process of transporting data between computers, storage devices or formats. It is a key consideration for any system implementation, upgrade or consolidation.

Data mining

The process of discovering meaningful correlations, patterns and trends by sifting through large amounts of data stored in repositories. Data mining employs pattern recognition technologies, as well as statistical and mathematical techniques.

Decryption

The process of transforming data that has been rendered unreadable through encryption back to its unencrypted form. In decryption, the system extracts and converts the garbled data and transforms it to texts and images that are easily understandable not only by the reader but also by the system. Decryption may be accomplished manually or automatically. It may also be performed with a set of keys or passwords.

Denial of Service

The prevention of authorized access to resources or the delaying of time-critical operations.

Digital

Representation of voice or other information using digits 0 and 1. The digits are transmitted as a series of pulses. Digital networks allow for higher capacity, greater functionality and improved quality.

Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)

Transmits digital signals rather than the analog audio signals traditionally used in broadcast radio. DAB is broadcast on terrestrial networks, with prospects for satellite broadcasting.

Digital audio tape

A magnetic tape that stores audio data converted to digital form.

Digital business

The creation of new business designs by blurring the digital and physical worlds.

Digital customers

Use digital channels — Web, mobile and social — to consume content, engage with brands and complete a transaction.

Digital Forensics

1. The process of detecting and interpreting electronic data. Its purpose is to preserve any evidence in its original form during an organized investigation by collecting, identifying and verifying digital information for the purpose of reconstructing the past event. 2. A branch of digital forensic science, related to computerrelated forensics, evidence extracted from a computer and other digital storage media. The aim is to examine digital means of identifying, identifying, preserving, retrieving, analyzing and presenting facts and opinions about digital data.

Digital network

A telecommunication network in which information is converted into a series of distinct electronic pulses and then transmitted as a digital bit stream.

Digital signature

A specific type of electronic signature (e-signature) that relies on public-key cryptography to support identity authentication and provide data and transaction integrity.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

A specification for dedicated, full-duplex service between customer premise and a service provider's point of presence. DSL is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines.

Digital Subscriber Line Access Module (DSLAM)

Equipment that provides DSL on the telephone service provider end of a twisted pair telephone line. Typically located in a telephone wire center or remote terminal.

Digital wallet

A storage place of secure information necessary to authenticate a user and initiate an authorization process to make a transaction to purchase goods and services.

Digital watermarking

Refers to several different forms of tamper-resistant metadata that is used primarily to maintain a link to the data owner to support intellectual property claims and, secondarily, to enforce handling instructions. Invisible watermarks, which are usually based on a form of encryption technology, can be applied to multimedia objects (bitmaps, audio and video), and persist even when those objects are digitally manipulated.

Digitization

The process of changing from analog to digital form.

Dirty protocols

Many Internet Protocol (IP) applications assume that direct IP connectivity exists between hosts. In today's Internet or extranets, this is often not true. The problems of limited IP address space have caused many enterprises to use private Request for Comment (RFC) 1918 addresses. These addresses cannot be routed and, for enterprises to connect to the Internet or to communicate in an extranet, address translations or application proxies must be used.

Disaster Recovery (DR)

1) The use of alternative network circuits to re-establish communications channels in the event that the primary channels are disconnected or malfunctioning. 2) The methods and procedures for returning a data center to full operation after a catastrophic interruption (e.g., including recovery of lost data).

Distributed computing

A form of computing in which data and applications are distributed computing among disparate computers or systems, but are connected and integrated by means of network services and interoperability.

Distributed Database

A database whose objects (tables, views, columns and files) reside on more than one system in a network and can be accessed or updated from any system in the network.

Document Management (DM)

A function in which applications or middleware perform data management tasks tailored for typical unstructured documents (including compound documents). It may also be used to manage the flow of documents through their life cycles.

Domain Name

A unique identifier for an Internet site or Internet Protocol (IP) network address, consisting of at least two segments separated by periods. Enterprises must register toplevel domains with the Web Internet Registry and pay a yearly fee to maintain the registry.

Download

The process of bringing a file down to a computer through a network and typically, from a server, or some other computing device. Download times can be greatly affected by the method of connection to the network.

Downstream

In Internet access, traffic handled at the service provider end and terminating to the customer.

Dual – band Network

A cellular radio system that operates in two different frequency bands in which network elements conform to identical network architectures and radio interfaces.

Dumb terminal

Is a terminal that does not performing local processing of entered information, but serves only as an input/output device for an attached or networklinked processor.

Eavesdropping

A breach of confidentiality by monitoring communication.

e-Bill

An electronic bill is a bill presented or delivered via e-mail or the Internet.

e-Commerce

Electronic commerce is a term used to describe transactions that take place online where the buyer and seller are remote from each other.

e-Learning

Electronic learning is the use of Internet technology for learning outside of the classroom. Elearning suites are software solutions that enable automation, administration and training over the Internet. Elearning suites are integrated product collections that comprise learning management systems (LMSs), virtual classrooms, courseware and learning content management systems (LCMSs). An LMS is software that automates the training process and function and includes registration and administration tools, skills and records management, courseware access, and programming interfaces to packaged applications.

Electronic Customer Relationship Management CRM)

Involves the integration of Web channels into the overall enterprise CRM strategy with the goal of driving consistency within all channels relative to sales, customer service and support (CSS) and marketing initiatives. It can support a seamless customer experience and maximize customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and revenu.

Electronic Government (e- Gov)

The use of electronic communications devices, computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region.

Electronic Health Record (EHR

System contains patient-centric, electronically maintained information about an individual's health status and care, focuses on tasks and events directly related to patient care, and is optimized for use by clinicians. The EHR provides support for all activities and processes involved in the delivery of clinical care.

Electronic Crime

Illegal, unethical or unauthorized conduct, and is an extension of the normal criminal activity that conducted via cyberspace using non-traditional methods to complement the ordinary crime. Cybercrime has several types including: Cybercrime that targets individuals, aimed to obtain illegally on the electronic identity of individuals, such as email and password, or impersonation electronically, or drag photos and important files from victim’s device to threaten him and request orders. Cybercrime that targets government and private agencies, destroying important files, data or proprietary software, by sending malware to the user’s computer and in a variety of ways like electronic mails. Cybercrime that targets Governments, the pirate attacks government official websites and network systems aiming to damage the website, the infrastructure of the site, the network system or destroy all aforementioned. Other crimes such as fraud, theft, extortion, theft of electronic information and use them illegally, cursing and swearing, slander, and cyber terrorism.

Electronic paper Electronic paper

Refers to several reflective display technologies that do not require a backlight and can be viewed in conditions of good ambient illumination.

Electronic Waste e-Waste

A generic term used to describe all types of old, end-of-life or discarded electrical and electronic equipment, such as household appliances; office information and communications equipment; entertainment and consumer electronic equipment; lighting equipment; electric and electronic tools; toys; and leisure, sports and recreational equipment that are powered by electricity.

Encryption

The process of converting plain text into code to secure information from being read by unauthorized persons or those without special computing knowledge.

e-Procurement

Electronic procurement is the applications support indirect spending by giving casual users (i.e., employees who are not procurement professionals) a self-service solution for requisitioning and ordering goods and services.

Ethernet

A baseband local-area network (LAN) originally developed by Xerox a supported by Intel, Digital Equipment (now Compaq Computer) and Hewlett-Packard. It has a bus topology with carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access control. Ethernet is not identical to Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3.

Evidence

Information that, either by itself or when used in conjunction with other information, may be used to resolve a dispute. Note – Particular forms of evidence are digital signatures, secure envelopes and security tokens.Digital signatures are used with public-key techniques while secure envelopes and security tokens are used with secret key techniques.

Fibre pair

Two strands of optical fibre which, when in service, are provisioned and operated as a unit. Some wave division multiplexing equipment, used to move information along optical fibre, requires both strands of a fibre pair in order to achieve full-duplex communication, using each strand in one direction only.

Forgery

An entity fabricates information and claims that such information was received from another entity or sent to another entity.

Fibre to the Home (FTTH)

Fibre terminating at a residence and originating at a switching facility, either a concentrator, remote or central office.

File server

A computer containing files available to all users connected to a local-area network (LAN).

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

A Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) standard used to log onto a network, list directories and copy files. That is, it provides authentication of the user and lets users transfer files, list directories, delete and rename files on the foreign host, and perform wild-card transfers.

Firewall

An application or an entire computer (e.g., an Internet gateway server) that controls access to the network and monitors the flow of network traffic. A firewall can screen and keep out unwanted network traffic and ward off outside intrusion into a private network.

Fixed access line

A network access line which connects between two fixed nodes, and may be delivered over twisted-pair copper, coaxial copper, optical fibre, fixed wireless, satellite, or other materials.

Fixed line

A physical line connecting the subscriber to the telephone exchange. Typically, fixed-line network is used to refer to the PSTN to distinguish it from mobile networks.

Fixed wireless

A method for provisioning a network segment between two fixed locations using wireless devices or systems, whether analogue or digital. Fixed wireless devices normally derive their electrical power from utility mains, as opposed to portable wireless devices that normally derive their power from batteries. Most fixed wireless systems rely on digital radio transmitters placed on rooftops, aerial towers, or other elevated locations, and achieve point-to-point signal transmission via a microwave platform. Unlike a satellite system, fixed wireless is a terrestrial technology.

Form cell

A position on a grid defined explicitly by a survey form or questionnaire, as opposed to a position on a software-defined grid such as an Excel spreadsheet. A form cell is specified according to its vertical form column coordinate and its horizontal form row coordinate, in that order.

Framework

A style guide that defines the look, feel and interoperability of software applications.

Framing

A control procedure used with multiplexed digital channels, whereby bits are inserted so the receiver can identify the time slots allocated to each channel.

Frequency

A specified band or range within the overall spectrum of electromagnetic radio waves used as a channel for sending or receiving communications. Frequency is the rate at which an electrical current alternate, usually measured in Hertz. It is also used to refer to a location on the radio frequency spectrum, such as 800, 900 or 1'800 MHz.

FTTx

Generally refers to broadband telecommunications systems based on fibre-optic cables directly to the homes or business.

Functional Programming Language

Often a hotly debated topic among computer scientists, but it is generally accepted that such languages emphasize the value of expressions, rather than the execution of commands. These languages enable the programmer to think like a mathematician by emphasizing data over state.

Fuzzy Logic

A reasoning paradigm that deals with approximate or imprecise information by enabling variables to be described (often linguistically) and acted upon in terms of their degree of membership in predetermined sets. Control systems in electronic equipment and consumer products and other embedded control systems are among the most popular applications.

Gateway

A computer that sits between different networks or applications. The gateway converts information, data or other communications from one protocol or format to another. A router may perform some of the functions of a gateway. An Internet gateway can transfer communications between an enterprise network and the Internet. Because enterprises often use protocols on their local-area networks (LANs) that differ from those of the Internet, a gateway will often act as a protocol converter so that users can send and receive communications over the internet.

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

A packet-based air interface designed as a GSM overlay, permitting the use of GPRS as an optional data networking service on GSM-based networks, including interoperability with the wireline Internet. GPRS, which may also be implemented on non-GSM TDMA networks, can theoretically offer nearbroadband data over mobile, but practical multi-user implementations are constrained to much lower throughput rates closer to dial-up Internet speeds. Like CDMA 1xRTT, GPRS is a so-called "second-and-a-half generation" (2.5G) service.

Geographic Information System (GIS)

A collection of computer hardware, software and geographic data for capturing, managing, analyzing and displaying every form of geographically referenced information, often called spatial data.

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Refers to a "constellation" of 24 "Naystar" satellites launched initially by the United States Department of Defense, that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location. The location accuracy ranges from 10 to 100 meters for most equipment. A Russian system, GLONASS.

Global System for Mobile (GSM)

Developed under the auspices of the CEPT (Conference of European Posts & Telecommunications), GSM is a TDMA-based protocol implementation and a member of the so-called "second generation" (2G) family of mobile protocols. GSM is deployed widely across Europe and around the world, 1900 MHz frequency bands. When delivered in the 1900 MHz frequency band, GSM is sometimes referred to as part of the PCS family of services. (GSM).

Graphic User Interface (GUI)

A graphics-based operating system interface that uses icons, menus and a mouse (to click on the icon or pull down the menus) to manage interaction with the system.

Grid computing

As a method for applying large numbers of resources, usually large amounts of processing capacity, to a single task, by applying resources from more than one system. A grid is a collection of resources that is coordinated to enable the resources to solve a common problem.

Hacker

1)Malicious hacker refers to any unlawful access to a computer system, this crime has become a mass phenomenon famous targets of hacking attacks include the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Airforce, Yahoo, Google, Ebay and the German Government. 2)Ethical hacker (also known as penetration testing) refers to the exploitation of an IT system with the permission of its owner in order to determine its vulnerabilities and weaknesses. It is process of testing and validating an organisation’s information security posture and maturity. The results of ethical hacking are typically used to recommend preventive and corrective countermeasures that mitigate the risk of a cyber attack. An ethical hacker is an individual who is trusted to attempt to penetrate an organisation’s networks and/or computer systems using the same knowledge and tools as a malicious hacker, but in a lawful and legitimate manner.

Haptics

A tactile or force-feedback technology that leverages a person's sense of touch by applying vibrations and/or motion to the user's fingertips.

Hash Function

A (mathematical) function that maps values from a (possibly very) large set of values into a smaller range of values.

Help desk management

Services provide centralized information and support management service to handle a company's internal or external queries and operational problems about IT-related processes, policies, systems and usage.

Heterogeneous architecture

A computing system architecture in which processors use more than one instruction set, all of which share a single memory. This requires programs to be written differently for each of the dissimilar instruction sets.

High speed internet

An Internet Access service whose advertised throughput reaches, or which consistently achieves, speeds above narrowband (128 Kbps) between the end user's equipment and the first Internet router reached outside the IP network managed by the Internet provider.

Hit

An individual visit to a website or Web page, expressed as a measure of its popularity.

Host

Any computer that can function as the beginning and end point of data transfers. Each internet host has a unique internet address (IP address) associated with a domain name.

Hot spot

Area, often public, such as an airport, coffee shop or convention center, that is covered with a WLAN service. This service is available for the public to use for a nominal charge, for free or as a premium service.

Hybrid cloud computing

Refers to policy-based and coordinated service provisioning, use and management across a mixture of internal and external cloud services.

Hyperlink

An area on a Web page that, when clicked on with a mouse, will transport the user to another Web page. Also called "links" or "hot links," hyperlinks are analogous to hypertext.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

A Hypertext document format used on the World Wide Web. Mark- up languages for translating Web content onto mobile phones include cHTML, WML and xHTML

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Open-Internet protocol to transfer or convey information on the World WiVOIPde Web

ICT Governance Framework

A guide for governments aiming to maximize the use of ICT in the pursuit of development goals. This framework is usually comprised of: 1) a set of principles 2) a decision-making hierarchy 3) a tailor-made suite of reporting and monitoring processes.

Identity theft

Creating a false identity using someone else's identifying information (e.g., name, Social Security Number, birthday) to create new credit cards or establish loans which then go into default and affect the original victim's credit record.

Image recognition

Technologies strive to identify objects, people, buildings, places, logos, and anything else that has value to consumers and enterprises.

Indefeasible Right of Use (IRUs)

Unconditional right to use a facility, e.g. a fibre-optic cable. The IRU holder holds privileges generally associated with ownership except the right to control the operation of the facility in which the circuit lies.

Information and Communicatio ns Technology (ICT)

Is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them.

Information Engineering (1E)

A methodology for developing an integrated information system based on the sharing of common data, with emphasis on decision support needs as well as transaction-processing (TP) requirements.

Information Life Cycle Management (ILM)

Is an approach to data and storage management that recognizes that the value of information changes over time and that it must be managed accordingly. ILM seeks to classify data according to its business value and establish policies to migrate and store data on the appropriate storage tier and, ultimately, remove it altogether.

Information Security

Information security is focused on protecting specific individual systems and the information within organizations. The model for information security defines three objectives: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

Information Sharing and Analysis Centre (ISAC)

Non-profit organizations that provide a central resource for gathering information on cyber threats (in many cases to critical infrastructure) as well as allow two-way sharing of information between the private and the public sector.

Information Technology (IT)

This is the common term for the entire spectrum of technologies for: information processing, including software, hardware, communications technologies and related services.

Infrastructure as a Service (laaS)

A standardized, highly automated offering, where compute resources, complemented by storage and networking capabilities are owned and hosted by a service provider and offered to customers on-demand. Customers are able to self-provision this infrastructure, using a Web-based graphical user interface that serves as an IT operations management console for the overall environment.

Input /Output (I/O)

The activity of sending information to or from peripheral devices, terminals, direct-access storage devices (DASDs), tape drives and printers.

Instant Messaging (IM)

A communications service in which short messages appear in pop-up screens as soon as they are received, thereby commanding the recipient's immediate attention.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE)

Nonprofit professional association of scientists and engineers founded in 1963 with more than 365,000 members in 150 countries. It is best known for setting global standards for computing and communications and has 1,300 standards and projects under development.

Integrated carrier

An entity that owns operates both fixed-line and mobile network infrastructure and provides aforementioned services (fixed and mobile).

Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)

An ITU-T specification for digital transmission over twisted-pair copper lines as well as over other media, such that the same switches and digital transmission paths are used to establish connections for different services, usually over the PSTN. ISDN lines come in two flavors, the BRI (Basic Rate Interface), which consists one or two 64 Kbps channels and an associated 16 Kbps signaling channel, and the PRI (Primary Rate Interface).

Integration

Integration services are detailed design and implementation services that link application functionality (custom software or package software) and/or data with each other or with the established or planned IT infrastructure.

Integrity Service

The integrity service provides means to ensure the correctness of exchanged data, protecting against modification, deletion, creation (insertion) and replay of exchanged data. The following kinds of integrity services are distinguished: selective field integrity; connection integrity without recovery; connection integrity with recovery.

Interactive Voice Response (IVR)

A voice/call-processing option for improving call center functionality and integration. It enables callers to have more flexibility to access information or leave messages. Use of this option can "offload" call volume from agents to the IVR or improve load balancing by having agents handle recorded messages during slow periods.

Interconnection

The linking of at least two telecommunications network segments at a common physical point inside a single building, where each interconnected network segment is managed by a separate party, in such a manner as to allow traffic from one party's network segment to be transferred onto another party's network segment.

Interconnection Revenues

Revenues earned for the provision of service and/or facilities beyond the point of interconnection in order to transit or terminate network traffic on behalf of another service provider, including transiting or termination provided pursuant to an interconnection tariff or agreement.

International interconnection payment, net

The money paid out or the money taken in after settling balance-of minutes accounts for international PSTN communications with other service providers, regardless of whether the settlement is based on ITU accounting rates, FCC benchmark rates, or private arrangements.

International Organization for Standardizatio n (ISO)

A voluntary, nontreaty organization established in 1949, as a technical agency of the United Nations, to promote international standardization in a broad range of industries. ISO's Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model establishes guidelines for network architectures.

International Telecommunic ation Union (ITU)

The United Nations specialized agency for telecommunications

Internet

A collection of terminals which are addressable via the Internet protocol and reachable via ICANN-administered IP address space.

Internet access

The provision of Internet protocol (IP) connectivity to an end user such that: ? the end user is able to send and receive http traffic and at least one other type of applications traffic to and from hosts that provide these services and are reachable through the ICANNadministered domain name system; and ? the end user is assigned a unique address for the duration of the connection, even where that address is routable only by the end user's access provider.Access to a closed network dedicated to a specific IP application such as voice-overIP does not, therefore, constitute Internet access; nor does access to a private network which significantly restricts reachability to and from other ICANN-registered domain name participants. As a connectivity protocol, Internet access must be provided over physical network capacity as well as a data link connection; lower-layer facilities or services of this type, such as DSL provisioning charges or mobile airtime charges, the latter are distinguished from Internet access as separate items.

Internet access provider

Any service provider, including providers of voice telephony or cable television services, which provides Internet access on a retail or wholesale basis.

Internet backbone

The set of all network connections established between the routing computers that move aggregated end-user IP traffic through the Internet. Internet backbones are measured as a series of router-to-router links, where each link is assigned a discrete capacity based on the capacity (in Mbps) dedicated to Internet traffic on that link; where each router is a core router whose direct links are to other ; routing equipment, not to end-use terminals; and where each router-to-router link is part of a single Autonomous System.

Internet bandwidth

The sources of data, services, images, videos, search engines and other content available on the internet and is accessible through web sites, electronic services, systems and devices connected to the internet and may be established by individuals, companies or governments.

Internet exchange point

Also known as Network Access Points (NAPs) or Metropolitan Area Exchanges (MAEs), Internet exchange points (IX points, or IXPs) are services created to facilitate on-site interconnection between independent or third-party Internet networks without recourse to the facility owner except for technical and troubleshooting reasons. Internet exchange points are neutral meeting grounds: the exchange must provide an Internet switching fabric for traffic exchange, although members may usually opt to interconnect their equipment directly.

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)

A protocol used to access e-mail or bulletin board messages from a (possibly shared) mail server.

Internet of Things (loT)

Is the network of physical objects that contain embedded technology to communicate and sense or interact with their internal states or the external environment.

Internet protocol (IP)

A connectionless, packetswitched network layer protocol for exchanging data between computers. IP standards are set by the • Internet Engineering Task Force; currently standardized on IP version 4 (IPv4)—another version, IPv6, has been deployed and makes use of IPv4 space via tunneling—the Internet Protocol requires a host-to-host transport protocol specified as either TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which defines a connection- oriented service, or UDP (User Datagram Protocol), which defines a connectionless service. IP connectivity entails the provision of Internet protocol connectivity to an end user such that that end user is able to communicate with other users also granted similar connectivity]. Because nonInternet IP services exist, however, IP connectivity does not necessarily imply connectivity to the public Internet.


A unique number assigned by an Internet authority that identifies a computer on the Internet.

Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network (IPVPN)

An overlay network of secured (encrypted) links whose end-use nodes constitute a closed group, and each of whose nodes accesses this network via the Internet protocol. Popular IPVPN protocols include Point-toPoint Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2PP), and IP Secure (IPsec). Where additional services such as voice-over-IP and video-over-IP communications are provided to a customer over a customerprovisioned IP-VPN infrastructure, and where that IP-VPN infrastructure is not used exclusively for one or another of these additional services, then revenues for these services should be included in IP-VPN revenues.

Internet service provider (ISP)

Any service provider, including providers of voice telephony or cable television services, which provides Internet connectivity or an Internet-based application on a retail or wholesale basis. Internet connectivity services include Internet access and Internet transit.

Internet transit

A specialized, revenue-based form of Internet access which bundles BGP routing with connectivity to either the whole Internet or to a subset of the whole Internet, where the subset may be defined by geographic, by network, or otherwise. Because it includes interdomain (BGP) routing, only Internet users with an AS number and at least two separate connections to the Internet normally purchase Internet transit.

IP address

A 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet. Internet IP addresses are assigned and overseen by ICANN.

IP telephony

IP telephony is used as generic term for the conveyance of voice, fax and related services, partially or wholly over packetbased, IP-based networks. See also VoIP.

IPv4

Internet protocol version 4. The version of IP in common use today.

IPv6

Internet protocol version 6. The emerging standard, which aims to rectify some of the problems seen with IPv4, in particular the shortage of address space.

IT Governance (ITG)

Is defined as the processes that ensure the effective and efficient use of IT in enabling an organization to achieve its goals. IT demand governance (ITDG—what IT should work on) is the process by which organizations ensure the effective evaluation, selection, prioritization, and funding of competing IT investments;oversee their implementation; and extract (measurable) business benefits. ITDG is a business investment decisionmaking and oversight process, and it is a business management responsibility.

IT services

Refers to the application of business and technical expertise to enable organizations in the creation, management and optimization of or access to information and business processes.

Kernel

The heart of an operating system, a kernel is the part of the operating system that interconnects with the hardware. With Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) software intended for use in Unix environments, the kernel's functional units are often included as a function library.

Laser disk

A storage medium that uses laser technology to record and retrieve data.

Latency

Measure of the responsiveness of a network, often expressed as the round-trip time (in milliseconds); that is, the time between initiating a network request and receiving a response.

Leased facility

A physical telecommunications facility, especially a network segment, managed by a supplier who does not own that facility but has managerial control over it through a leasing arrangement, enabling the supplier to provide a telecommunications service using the leased facility. When this occurs, the service provider is known as a leased-facility provider of that service.

Ledger

A distributed ledger is a database that is consensually shared and synchronized across network spread across multiple sites, institutions or geographies.

Legacy application system

Information system that may be based on outdated technologies, but is critical to day-to-day operations.

Lit Fiber

Optical fibre cable attached to in-service transmission equipment.

Load balancing

The ability of processors to schedule themselves to ensure that all are kept busy while instruction streams are available.

Local Area Network (LAN)

A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LA are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN).

Local calling area

In voice wireline, the sum of all destinations to which a dialed connection may be established over the PSTN without incurring a toll charge above and beyond the local rate. These destinations may be served by one exchange or, especially where extended area service is provided, by more than one exchange. Connections between exchanges but within the mandatory extended area service area are considered part of the local calling area.

Local number portability

The ability to change to a different local phone service provider while retaining the same phone number.

Local rate revenue

In voice wireline, revenue obtained from the recurring charge paid by subscribers for local PSTN service, including any optional or mandatory touch-tone dialing charges, optional or mandatory Extended Area Service charges, optional or mandatory EAS-related distance charges, and mandatory features which must be taken with a voice wireline subscription, but excluding any optional features charges or flatrate toll (non-EAS) plans.

Locationbased services (LBS)

LBS make use of information on the location of a mobile device and user and can exploit a number of technologies for the geographic location of a user. Some of these technologies are embedded in the networks and others in the and sets themselves. Location capability is already available to some level of accuracy approx. 150 m) for most users of cellular networks. Increased accuracy can become available through location technologies such as GPS.

Long-haul backbone

A wide-area core network made up of point-to-point intercity network segments whose function is to transit network traffic between edge nodes

Machine learning

Algorithms are composed of many technologies (such as deep learning, neural networks and natural-language processing), used in unsupervised and supervised learning, that operate guided by lessons from existing information.

Mail server

A mail server (or email server) is a computer system that sends and receives email. Mail servers send and receive email using standard email protocols. For example, the SMTP protocol sends messages and handles outgoing mail requests.

Mainframe

Is a large-capacity computer system with processing power that is significantly superior to PCs or midrange computers.

Man-In-TheMiddle Attack

An attack in which an attacker is able to read, insert and modify at will messages between two parties without either party knowing that the link between them has been compromised.

Mappable geographic information

A data file containing geocoded information in a format compatible with the Mapinfo software package.

Masquerade

The pretense by an entity to be a different entity.

m-Commerce

Mobile commerce is a category of commerce that includes any purchase transaction completed using a wireless device, such as a cellular phone, PC or personal digital assistant. M-Commerce includes paying for a subscription to get content "pushed" to a mobile device, purchasing a product via a mobile device or using such a device to obtain a service for which a fee is charged. Purchases that are researched or arranged via a wireless device, but completed and settled by other means, are classified as mobile enabled transactions.

Media gateway

An infrastructure network element that converts one or more input protocols or media to one or more output media or protocols, such as TDM circuit switched networks, ATM or IP. It acts as a translation unit between disparate telecom networks, such as PSTNs, NGNs, second-generation (2G), generation two-and-a-half (2.5G) and 3G RANs, and PBXs. Media gateways support VolP and/or voice over ATM (VoATM).

Metadata

Information that describes various facets of an information asset to improve its usability throughout its life cycle. It is metadata that turns information into an asset. Generally speaking, the more valuable the information asset, the more critical it is to manage the metadata about it, because it is the metadata definition that provides understanding that unlocks the value of data.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A short-haul network which fills the gap between access and long-haul networks by connecting three or more locations together within a single municipality or adjacent municipalities, and then making private-line capacity available on those network segments in increments whose maximum is no less than 44 Mbps. Larger than a local area network (LAN) but smaller than a wide area network (WAN), a MAN is generally used to provide POPto-POP digital carrier services such as wavelengths or SONETbased private lines. On-net buildings include carrier hotels, central offices, colocation facilities, terminal rooms in multi-tenant units, and similar sites.

Metropolitan fibre system

A fibre-based MAN.

Microprocessor

Is a central processing unit (CPU) on a single chip, also known as a microprocessing unit (MPU). Desktop and portable computers typically contain one microprocessor, while morepowerful computers often make use of multiple microprocessors.

Middleware

The software "glue" that helps programs and databases (which may be on different computers) work together. Its most basic function is to enable communication between different pieces of software.

m-Learning

Mobile learning is the use of a mobile device to access and study learning materials and for communicating with the institution, tutors and fellow students.

Mobile

The term refers to mobile cellular systems.

Mobile operating system

The operating system that controls a mobile device or information appliance—similar in principle to an operating system such as Windows, Mac OS, or Linux that controls a desktop computer. However, they are simpler, and deal more with the wireless versions of broadband and local connectivity, mobile multimedia formats, and different input methods. Operating systems that can be found on smart phones include Nokia's Symbian, Google's Android, Apple's i0S, RIM's BlackBerry OS, Microsoft's Windows Phone, Linux, Palm/HP's WebOS, Samsung's Bada, Nokia's Maemo and MeeGo among many others.

Mobile coverage

The geographic area in which a given service provider provides connectivity using a given wireless protocol such as AMPS, CDMA, CDMA 1xRTT, non-GSM TDMA, GSM, GPRS, or ESMR. Mobile coverage may be provided in one of two ways, either as an on-net service using the network managed by the service provider, or as a roaming service using a network managed by another service provider, usually due to a formal roaming agreement between the user's service provider and the mobile network operator. Because mobile coverage often fluctuates in a given geographic zone according to climactic, architectural, and other conditions, the presence or absence of mobile coverage may be estimated according to geographic zones in which a customer might have reasonably expected outdoor coverage in at least 50 percent of the zone in question.

Mobile data

A wireless communications service involving the transmission and/or reception of data, such as SMS. Mobile data revenues include revenues accruing from Internet-based and non-Internetbased content and applications delivered as mobile data, except where those content and applications are broken out as a specific subcategory on a reporting form.

Mobile Deep Packet Inspection (DPI)

A technique used to monitor the data traffic in mobile applications. As a business model evolves in which data services become more important than voice for revenue generation—and in which the network is upgraded to Long Term Evolution (LTE) and becomes Internet Protocol (IP) end-to-end—the ability to perform traffic shaping, and perhaps blocking, becomes important.

Mobile interconnect

The linking of at least two telecommunications networks, managed separately, that allows traffic from one party's network segment to be transferred or terminated onto another party's network segment.

Mobile Internet service

A wireless communications service providing persistent or intermittent Internet access. It offers services such as news, travel, weather and entertainment using a wireless phone. Mobile Internet service revenues include flat-rate subscription revenues and recurring or volume-based usage revenues, but not revenues realized from equipment sales, nor revenues realized from the transmission of specific content or the use of specific Internet-based applications, on which see mobile data.

Mobile penetration rate

Measures the number of mobile subscribers per 100 inhabitants and is usually represented as a percentage figure.

Mobile plan

A predetermined amount of airtime, which may include a set package of features and other services and/or a set of optional features and other services identified by a trademark, and that provides a detailed outline of the terms of wireless or mobile subscriber service. A single plan usually allows for some minor flexibility, i.e., number of minutes of airtime, thus resulting in a limited number of permutations. By adding together all of the possible options of a plan, in all plans considered separately, the total number of plan permutations available to new subscribers can be calculated.

Mobile switch center (MSC)

Is a sophisticated telecommunications switch within a cellular network architecture which manages and handles circuit-switched calling and transmissions between base stations and mobile users.

Mobile virtual network operator (MVNO)

Is a mobile service provider who establishes arrangements with existing mobile service operator(s) to resell, prepackaged or repacked mobile wireless service plans. The MVNO handles its own customer care, billing, marketing, and branding.

Mobile voice

A wireless communications service providing access to the PSTN over radio frequencies which allow direct-dial communications to be established.

MobileNetwork Operator

A company that owns and operates one or more mobile networks.

Modem

Is short for Modulator and Demodulator. This is a device that enables the transfer of analogue/digital signals to and from one computer device to another.

Multicore processors

Are single processors that incorporate more than one processor core. Each core includes the functional elements required to enable it to execute instructions independently of the other cores.

Multimedia

A wireless messaging service that adds images, text, audio clips and video clips to SMS (Short Message Service/text messaging).

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)

A wireless messaging service that adds images, text, audio clips and video clips to SMS (Short Message Service/text messaging).

Multiplexing

Is a division of a transmission facility into two or more channels either by splitting the frequency band transmitted by the channel into narrower bands, each of which is used to constitute a distinct channel (frequency division multiplexing), or by allotting this common channel to several different information channels, one at a time (time division multiplexing).

Multithreading

Is concurrent processing of more than one message (or similar service request) by an application program.

Narrowband

On a point-to-point data access link, two-way capabilities with speed in either direction not exceeding 128 Kbps. See also bandwidth, broadband, wideband, high-speed internet.

National Cyber Security Center of Kuwait (NCSC- KW)

A government center within Communication and Information Technology Regulatory Authority -CITRA that is responsible of all national cyber security activities in the State of Kuwait. The center works with government agencies and private sector to monitor Kuwait’s networks for cyber security threats, collect and disseminate threat intelligence, and support the national cyber security response. NCSC-KW other functions include standardization of the national cyber security, evaluation and classification of cyber security industry, ICT systems and services.

Near Field Communicatin g (NFC)

A wireless technology that enables a variety of contactless and proximity-based applications, such as payments, information retrieval, mobile marketing and device pairing. It has an operating range of 10 cm or less using the 13.56MHz frequency band.

Network Access Control (NAC)

Process adds policies to the network for controlling access by devices and users. Policies may be based on device and/or user authentication and the status of endpoint configuration.

Network access line

A wireline connection from a customer location to the PSTN which includes: i) a telephone number, ii) a connection to the PSTN and iii) access from the customer location to the service providers office. NAS is used for voice connections as well as PSTN-switched data services.

Network Access Point (NAP)

The point from which an Internet service provider (ISP) drops down its lines and establishes a peering arrangement to provide Internet connectivity to customers.

Network access service (NAS)

A connection or line that provides subscribers with access to the PSTN (public switched telephone network), including voice connections as well as PSTN-switched data services. NAS are a subset of all network access lines, and usually come in the form of twisted copper wire pairs. Each twisted copper pair counts as a single NAS and as a single network access line. To account for all data lines, it is necessary to take a superset of NAS, adding in nonNAS access lines.

Network layer

Layer three in the OSI reference model. The network layer performs network routing and forwarding, flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control functions, cobbling various data links together so as to enable data to be delivered between any two nodes on the interconnected data links. IP is an example of a network layer protocol.

Network Operating Centers (NOC)

A network operations center (NOC) commonly serves as a hub for coordinating the operational management of domestic incidents, as well as situational awareness. A NOC is a standing interagency organization that operates on a 24/7 basis, fusing law enforcement, national intelligence, emergency response, and private-sector reporting. A NOC commonly facilitates national security information- sharing and operational coordination among (international) public and private sector.

Network segment

A network link connecting two interfaces, regardless as to whether the two interfaces interconnect switching equipment, transmission equipment, terminal equipment, or other facilities, and regardless as to whether the network link is achieved through a physical medium, through radio frequencies, or otherwise.

Network topology

Describes the physical and logical relationship of nodes in a network, the schematic arrangement of the links and nodes, or some hybrid combination thereof.

Next Generation Networks

These are packet-based networks in which servicerelated functions are independent from underlying transport related technologies. They are able to provide telecommunication services and make use of multiple broadband transport technologies.

NonRepudiation

The ability to prevent a sender from denying later that he or she sent a message or performed an action. Protection from denial by one of the entities involved in a communication of having participated in all or part of the communication. A process by which the sender of a message cannot deny having sent the message.

Off-net (mobile)

Not served, or not able to be served, using a given service provider's facilities. A call originating (or terminating) offnet has originated (or terminated), not on the network managed directly by the subscriber's service provider, but on another service provider's network. The latter provider usually bills the former provider for roaming or for service resale on a wholesale basis; the subscriber's provider, in turn, usually bills the end user on a retail basis.

On-net

Served, or able to be served, using a given service provider's facilities. A call originating (or terminating) on-net has originated (or terminated) on the subscriber's service provider's managed network. See also offnet.

On-net building

A building containing switching equipment and/or an access interface allowing interconnection with a given service provider's network.

Open data

Is information or content made freely available to use and redistribute, subject only to the requirement to attribute it to the source.

Open mobile alliance

An industry open-standards forum set up to facilitate global user adoption of mobile data services by ensuring service interoperability across devices, geographies, service providers, operators and networks.

Open source

Describes software that comes with permission to use, copy and distribute, either as is or with modifications, and that may be offered either free or with a charge. The source code must be made available.

Operating System (OS)

Software that, after being loaded into the computer by an initial boot program, manages a computer's resources, controlling the flow of information into and from a main processor.

Optical fibre

Also referred to as fibre, the medium and technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses guided over a filament of transparent dielectric material, usually glass or plastic. An optical fibre usually has a cylindrical core surrounded by, and in intimate contact with, a cladding of similar geometry.

Originating Call

A call initiated by a subscriber.

Originating minute

One billed minute of conversation time on a call initiated by a subscriber.

Overage

Additional units, such as gigabytes, or the cost of these additional units, which exceed a traffic cap.

Owned facility

A physical telecommunications facility owned by a supplier who, when providing a telecommunications service using that facility, is known as a facilities-based provider of that service. See also leased facility and resale.

Packet

A unit of data formatted for transmission on a network. Data is broken up into packets for sending over a packet switching network. Each packet has a header containing its source and destination, a block of data content, and an error-checking code. All the data packets related to a message may not take the same route to get to their destination; they are reassembled once they have arrived.

Packet switching

A technique in which a message is broken into smaller units called packets, which may be individually addressed and routed through the network, possibly using several different routes. The receiving-end node ascertains that all packets are received and in the proper sequence before forwarding the complete message to the addressee.

Paging

Service that allows transmitting a signal via radio from any telephone in the PSTN to a personal, portable receiving device in a defined operating area. More sophisticated systems provide audible or visual display messages

Parallel processing

The solution of a single problem across more than one processor. Little parallel processing is done today outside of research laboratories, because it is difficult to decompose tasks into independent parts, and the compiler technology does not yet exist that will extensively parallelize applications code.

Password

Confidential authentication information usually composed of a string of characters. Referring to a user-entered password string: is understood to be the assigned security key, which the mobile user shares with his home domain. This user password and derived user shared secret shall be applied for the purpose of user authentication.

Payment service provider

With credit card payments, a payment service provider technologically connects the public agency with the acquirer and processes the individual transactions.

Payphone

A public telecommunications terminal which provides coin- or card- based billing on a pertransaction basis, Examples of payphone- provided services include PSTN telephony, PSTN data jack, PSTN fax, Internet Web, Internet e-mail, and SMS services; voice payphones, however, must provide directdial PSTN services, either via a voice handset or via a jack permitting data services to be dialed over PSTN lines. Payphones are located indoors, outdoors, or in transportation vehicles such as airplanes and trains, where each location type includes semi-public phones available on a restricted basis owing to their location, for example payphones on private premises such as restaurants.

Peering

A settlement-free exchange of routing announcements between two Internet service providers for the purpose of ensuring that traffic from the first can reach customers of the second, and vice versa.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

A style of networking in which computers communicate directly with one another rather than routing traffic through managed central servers and networks.

Personal Identification Number (PIN)

A secret number, known only by the user which allows access to, for example, a bank cash machine or security system.

Personal cloud

Is the individual's collection of digital content, services and apps, which are seamlessly accessible across any device. The personal cloud is not a tangible entity, but rather the realization of four different types of experience in which users store, synchronize, stream and share content on a contextual basis, moving from one platform, screen and location to another. Founded on interconnected services and applications, it both reflects and sets consumers' expectations for how next-generation computing services will work.

Personal Communicatio ns Service (PCS)

A broad service description for communications protocols using radio frequencies in the 1900 MHz frequency band to provide mobile telecom services, including interoperability with the wireline PSTN (public switched telephone network). The PCS service description often refers to the 1800 MHz frequency band.

Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Offering, usually depicted in allcloud diagrams between the SaaS layer above it and the laaS layer below, is a broad collection of application infrastructure (middleware) services (including application platform, integration, business process management and database services). However, the hype surrounding the PaaS concept is focused mainly on application PaaS (aPaaS) as the representative of the whole category.

Point to Point

Describes a circuit that connects two points directly, where there are generally no intermediate processing nodes, although there could be switching facilities.

Postpaid service

A service for which a significant portion of services and usage are paid in arrears, subsequent to consuming the services.

Predictive analytics

describes any approach to data mining with four attributes: 1) An emphasis on prediction (rather than description, classification or clustering). 2) Rapid analysis measured in hours or days (rather than the stereotypical months of traditional data mining). 3) An emphasis on the business relevance of the resulting insights (no ivory tower analyses). 4) (Increasingly) An emphasis on ease of use, thus making the tools accessible to business users.

Prepaid service

A service for which a significant portion of services and usage are paid in advance, prior to consuming the services. Prepaid service is especially prominent in mobile voice communications, where a subscriber prepays for a set amount of airtime in advance of actual usage. A prepaid subscriber is defined as, at any given point in time, a subscriber who originated and/or received at least one mobile voice call using prepaid airtime at any time during the three preceding months, independently of the specific charge associated with that call or calls.

Privacy

1. The right of individuals to control or influence what information related to them may be collected and stored and by whom and to whom that information may be disclosed. Note – Because this term relates to the right of individuals, it cannot be very precise and its use should be avoided except as a motivation for requiring security. 2. A mode of communication in which only the explicitly enabled parties can interpret the communication. This is typically achieved by encryption and shared key(s) for the cipher.

Private Branch Exchange (PBX)

A private voicecommunications-capable switching facility located in an end-user organization's premises which provides onpremises connection between terminals connected to it, including dial service, and may provide connections to between those terminals and other communications networks, including the PSTN.

Private cloud computing

Is a form of cloud computing that is used by only one organization, or that ensures that an organization is completely isolated from others.

Private key

The confidential half of the asymmetric key pair used in public-key cryptography. Unlike the "secret key" used in symmetric-key cryptography — a single key known by both the sender and the receiver — a private key is known only by the recipient.

Private line

Any network segment, including a network access line, delivered as a clear communications path which provides its full bandwidth for the user's service, and on which no control or signaling is performed. A private line may be provisioned as a terrestrial private line, including fibre, copper, microwave, and other nonsatellite materials, or it may be provisioned as a satellite private line, in which case the point-topoint link is defined by the two terrestrial points which connect the line, making the satellite portion internal to the network segment.

Privilege

An attribute or property assigned to an entity by an authority.

Protocol

A set of formal rules and specifications describing how functional units should interact, especially within a network. For example, a data link protocol is the specification of methods whereby data communications over a data link are performed in terms of the transmission mode, control procedures, and recovery procedures.

Provider name

The registered name of a legal entity contracted to act as a service provider.

Proxy

A proxy is a computer in a network which temporarily stores data downloaded from the Internet. Proxies are used for performance reasons or in order to improve IT security.

Proxy Server

Devices that process and filter all Internet Protocol (IP) packets that are directed to them and decide which protocols and services can be served out of their caches.

PSTN data jack

An RJ-11 interface on a payphone or other terminal for connecting a modem in order to establish a data link through the PSTN.

Public cloud computing

A style of computing where scalable and elastic IT-enabled capabilities are provided as a service to external customers using Internet technologies— i.e., public cloud computing uses cloud computing technologies to support customers that are external to the provider's organization.

Public Key

The public half of the asymmetric key pair used in public-key cryptography.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

The comprehensive system that manages keys and certificates for an organization, allowing encryption features to be used with a wide variety of applications. In order to be effective, a PKI must be usable, automatic and transparent; users should be able to use encryption and digital signatures in the absence of extensive knowledge.

Public network

Network established and operated by a telecommunications provider or recognized private company, for specific purpose of providing data transmission services for the public. Data must be encrypted during transmission over public networks as hackers easily and commonly intercept, modify, and/or divert data while in transit. Examples of public networks in scope of PCI DSS include the Internet, GPRS, and GSM.

Public Switched Telephone Network. (PSTN)

The worldwide set of interconnected switched voice telephone networks that deliver fixed telephone services to the general public and are usually accessed by telephones, key telephone systems, private branch exchange trunks, and certain data arrangements, transmitting voice, other audio, video, and data signals. Completion of a PSTN circuit between the call originator and the call receiver requires network signaling in the form of either dial pulses or multifrequency tones. The PSTN includes local loops; short-haul trunks; long-haul trunks, including international links; exchanges; and switching technology.

Public-Key Certificate

The public key of a user, together with some other information, rendered unforgeable by encipherment with the private key of the certification authority which issued it. Values that represent an owner's public key (and other optional information) as verified and signed by a trusted authority in an unforgeable format. A binding between an entity's public key and one or more attributes relating to its identity, also known as a digital certificate.

Push Technology

A process that allows a user to obtain automatic delivery of specified information from the Internet to the user's computer— for example, stock market quotes, weather forecasts, and sports scores. Software that automates the delivery of information to users too relates to Push Technology. In contrast, the Web is a "pull" environment that requires a user to seek information. In a "push" environment, information is sent to a person proactively, through a Web browser, email, or even voice mail or a pager. In business, push technology can be used for the conveyance of time-sensitive information.

Quality of Service (QoS)

A negotiated contract between a user and a network provider that renders some degree of reliable capacity in the shared network.

Quantum computer

Uses atomic quantum states to effect computation. Data is held qubits (quantum bits), which have the ability to hold all possible states simultaneously. This property, known as "superposition," gives quantum computers the ability to operate exponentially faster than conventional computers as word length is increased.

Quick Response Codes (QR Codes)

High-density, two-dimensional bar codes that are readable by mobile phones and computer cameras with the correct code.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

A system of radio tagging that provides identification data for goods in order to make them traceable. Typically used by manufacturers to make goods such as clothing items traceable without having to read bar code data for individual items.

Redundancy

Provision of duplicate, backup equipment or links that immediately take over the function of equipment or transmission lines that fail.

Redundant Array of Intendent Disks (RAID)

A method of mirroring or striping data on clusters of low-end disk drives; data is copied onto multiple drives for faster throughput, error correction, fault tolerance and improved mean time between failures.

Remote Diagnostic Technologies

Provide the ability to deliver onboard vehicle-related performance and quality data to a central monitoring application for the purpose of improving parts performance and reliability insights for engineering and product development.

Repudiation

Denial by one of the entities involved in a communication of having participated in all or part of the communication. An entity involved in a communication exchange subsequently denies the fact

Request block

A request to block access to internet content categorized under prohibited content categories.

Resale

The subsequent sale or lease on a commercial basis, with or without adding value, of a distinct telecommunications service or distinct telecommunications facilities provided by a supplier on a wholesale basis. Under sustainably competitive market conditions, the reseller attempts to price its services or facilities high enough to recover its wholesale cost, but low enough to remain competitive with facilitiesbased service providers in the same market. A distinct telecommunications service or facility is bounded horizontally by OSI network layers and vertically by market segments: value added beyond these boundaries is defined as creating a new service, not reselling an existing service or facility. Where a service provider leases a clear-channel trunk and provides its own ATM and IP routers to sell Internet transit on that trunk, for example, no resale may be said to have occurred, since the leasing of raw material - (clear-channel trunk) occurs at a different network layer than the ATM (data link) or IP (network) services, and since the clear-channel private line is not itself resold to another entity. A company which provides a service on a resale basis is a reseller of that service, but the same company may also be a facilities-based provider or wholesaler of other services: a company may therefore be described as a reseller only about a given service.

Response time

The time period between a terminal operator's completion of an inquiry and the receipt of a response

Retail

Provision of a telecommunications service or facility for end use, including trunking and backbone use.

Retail internet revenues

All Internet service (IS) revenues, independent of speed and the facilities over which the services are carried. Retail IS includes, but is not limited to, all IS that permit the users of those services to upload and/or download information from the Internet and to use applications such as electronic mail. Retail IS including Internet; based application services such as web hosting and Internet service provided on a wholesale basis to other ISPs, which in turn are resold to their end-user customers. The provision to ISPs of access to underlying telecommunication facilities to provide IS to end-users is not considered a Retail Internet Service for the purpose of the contribution regime .

Retail paging revenues

A wireless and/or satellitebased service that permits a customer to receive and/or send uni-directional messages from one or more individual receivers. Retail paging service also may contain, but is not limited to, voice, text, audio, video and data.

Roaming

A service offered by mobile communications network operators which allows a subscriber to use her or his terminal while in the service area of another service provider. Usually measured by minute or by message, roaming normally involves at least two charges, an end-user retail charge paid by the enduser to a service provider, and an intercarrier retail charge paid from one service provider to another for network use.

Robotics

A branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots which is a mechanical device that performs a variety of often complex human tasks on command or through advanced programming.

Router

A computer or other functional unit used as an interface between two or more network segments at layer three of the OSI reference model, routing traffic through these segments in such a way as to promote its arrival at the destination to which it was addressed. An Internet router accomplishes this by reading the network layer address of each packet transmitted to it, making an algorithm-based decision about the next network segment hop which must be taken by each packet, and treating the packet accordingly.

Satellite

A microwave receiver, repeater, and regenerator in orbit above Earth. A satellite link is a microwave link using a satellite to receive, amplify, and retransmit signals to another location; network segments, including private lines, may be delivered in this manner. A point-to-point satellite link is defined as a network segment connecting two terrestrial points, where the satellite portion is considered internal to the network segment.

Satellite broadcasting operator

An entity that leverages satellite infrastructure to transmit TV channels to viewers as a main business.

Satellite Phone (satphone)

Handheld device that uses satellite infrastructure to effect wireless voice and SMS communications without the use of a terrestrial infrastructure.

Scanner

A device that resolves a twodimensional object, such as a business document, into a stream of bits by raster scanning and quantization.

Screen sharing

Similar to application sharing, but not all parties can update the document simultaneously

Search engine

A large, searchable index of Web pages that is automatically updated by spiders or Web crawlers and housed on a central server connected to the Internet. Examples include Yahoo and AltaVista.

Secret key

In this cryptography method (also known as symmetric-key cryptography), the single key needed to encrypt and decrypt messages is a shared secret between the communicating parties.

Security Audit

A systematic analysis of all security components including people, policies, solutions and tools that used by any institution to secure its environment. Furthermore, security audit aims to monitor compliance with security policies, assess the level of risk and the balance between resources including organizational, technical and human resources.

Security Baseline

A security baseline describes the measures that should be implemented to reach a specific minimum-security level.

Security Management

Security management comprises all activities to establish, maintain and terminate the security aspects of a system. Topics covered are: management of security services; installation of security mechanisms; key management (management part); establishment of identities, keys, access control information, etc.; management of security audit trail and security alarms.

Security policy

Set of laws, rules, and practices that regulate how an organization manages, protects, and distributes sensitive information.

Sensor

A device, such as a photoelectric cell, that receives and responds to a signal or stimulus.

Server

1) A host computer on a network that sends stored information in response to requests or queries. 2) The term server is also used to refer to the software that makes the process of serving information possible.

Service address

The most precise civic address of the site at which a given telecommunications facility terminates or at which telecommunications service is delivered by the service provider, regardless of the point of billing.

Service charge

A one-time charge billed to an end user for installation, addition, or removal of lines, equipment, services, premise wiring, repairs, or maintenance services, whether on or off the customer's premises.

Service provider

Any private person or legal entity who provides any telecommunications service to any other private person or legal entity for compensation.

Settlement rate

Usually, one-half of the perminute accounting rate determined under the auspices of the ITU to establish the theoretical full cost of an international PSTN communication on a given country-to-country route. The settlement rate is the amount paid by the originating service provider to the terminating service provider to reimburse the theoretical half-circuit cost. With private intercarrier arrangements and FCC benchmark rates, the accounting rate system is today one of three major systems used to determine PSTN international interconnection payments.

Short Message Service (SMS)

A service available on digital networks, typically enabling messages with up to 160 characters to be sent or received via the message center of a network operator to a subscriber's mobile phone.

Short-haul backbone

A metropolitan area core network made up of point-topoint intracity network segments whose function is to transit network traffic between edge nodes.

Smart card

A plastic card that contains a microprocessor and a memory chip or just a memory chip. The microprocessor card has the ability to add, delete and manipulate information on the card.A plastic card that contains a microprocessor and a memory chip or just a memory chip. The microprocessor card has the ability to add, delete and manipulate information on the card.

Smart technologies

A subsection of 'Clean Tech' that are ICT enabled to better understand, monitor, use, manage and control energy and material use and consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these are smart design technologies such as Building Information Modelling (BIM); variable rate motors with smart control systems; smart metering systems; dematerialization technologies such as ecommerce, virtual market places, virtual goods and services; smart transportation and logistics technologies including electric vehicles (EVs); workflow control systems for reducing waste and energy consumption in manufacturing and other industrial applications; smart grid and related technologies; smart buildings and building management systems (BMS) and smart water management technologies.

Smartphone

A mobile communications device that uses an identifiable open OS. An open OS is supported by third-party applications written by a notable developer community. Third-party applications can be installed and removed, and they can be created for the device's OS and application programming interfaces (APIs).

Sniffer

A network management tool that monitors data packets on a network to help administrators ensure message integrity and service quality.

Social computing

Supporting any sort of social behavior in or through the use of computers and computer software. It is based on creating or recreating social conventions and social contexts otherwise only possible in face-to-face interaction. Blogs, email, instant messaging, social network services, wikis, and social bookmarking are common examples of social software.

Social media

The tools and platforms people use to publish, converse and share content online. The tools include blogs, wikis, podcasts, and sites to share photos and bookmarks.

Social Networking (SN)

Social networking websites allow users to be part of a virtual community. The two most popular sites are currently Facebook and MySpace. Popular Social Networking sites include RenRen, Weibo and Cyworld. These websites provide users with simple tools to create a custom profile with text and pictures. A typical profile includes basic information about the user, at least one photo, and possibly a blog or other comments published by the user. Also known as an online phenomenon where users can create a profile for themselves, and then socialize with others using a range of social media tools including blogs, video, images, tagging, lists of friends, forums and messaging.

Soft switch

A type of network-switching technology. Soft switches are software-based products used to control communications networks.

Software Asset Management (SAM)

A process for making software acquisition and disposal decisions. It includes strategies that identify and eliminate unused or infrequently used software, consolidating software licenses or moving toward new licensing models.

Software Development Kit (SDK)

A set of development utilities for writing software applications, usually associated with specific environments (e.g., the Windows SDK).

Spam

Usenet messages flooded to many newsgroups indiscriminately. The term is also loosely applied to junk mail.

Spectrum

The radio frequency spectrum of hertzian waves used as a transmission medium for cellular radio, radio paging, satellite communication, overthe-air broadcasting and other services.

Spoofing

A process whereby a router responds to keep alive messages from a host rather than passing them on the remote client, thus saving call charges. Used mainly in Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).

Streaming

Technique that supports the continuous, one-way transmission of audio and/or video data via the Internet and, more recently, via a mobile network.

Structured Query Language (SQL)

A relational data language that provides a consistent, English keyword-oriented set of facilities for query, data definition, data manipulation and data control. It is a programmed interface to relational database management systems.

Subnet

A portion of network that may be physically independent of another network portion, but both portions of the network share the same network address, and the portion is distinguished by a subnet number.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Card

A small printed circuit board inserted into a GSM-based mobile; phone. It includes subscriber details, security information and a memory for a personal directory of numbers. This information can be retained by subscribers when changing handsets.

Subscription

A billed product or service made available to a customer for usage. Unlike an account, each individual product or service constitutes a separate subscription: a single account may, for example, include many mobile subscription and many Internet access subscriptions. Voice wireline and mobile subscriptions are measured by the number of separate phone numbers with service; Internet access subscriptions are measured by the number of unique IP addresses which may be used simultaneously by different parties. See also prepaid and postpaid.

Switching and aggregation

A tariffed interconnection charge which a service provider must pay another service provider to load PSTN traffic off the former’s and onto the latter's network. Switching and aggregation may be paid to terminate traffic onto a local access line (local switch) or to transport traffic across a toll network (toll tandem).

Synchronization

Establishment of common timing between sending and receiving equipment.

Syntax

Message format or grammar (e.g., field lengths and delineators, headers, footers and optional fields.

TC/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol)

A set of protocols covering (approximately) the network and transport layers of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model.

Telecom analytic

Encompass sophisticated business intelligence (BI) technologies that are packaged to satisfy the complex requirements of telecom organizations. These include increasing sales, reducing churn and fraud, improving risk management and decreasing operational costs.

Telecommunic ations

Any emission, transmission, or reception of intelligence by any wire, cable, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic systems.

Telecommunic ations revenues

Revenues generated providers of telecommunications products and services. The revenues are net of discounts, returns or allowances, promotional offers, rebates and federal and provincial taxes collected for remittance to the governments. Examples include revenues from local, long distance, data, private line, mobile and internet services.

Telecommunic ations facility

Any physical apparatus, device, line, network segment, or other thing that is used or is capable of being used for telecommunication service or for any operation directly connected with telecommunications.

Telecommunic ations service

Any service involving the use of telecommunications in whole or in part and which is provided by any person, organization, unit, or legal entity to any other private person, organization, unit, or legal entity. Telecommunications services include both regulated and unregulated services, such as the provision of Internet access.

Teleconferencing

An interactive telecommunications session managed by a service provider in such a manner as to allow participants' live audio, and possibility linked video and/or data, to be transmitted between two or more locations.

Tele-density

A term commonly used to describe the number of telephone lines.

Telephony system license

A dedicated voice endpoint as a user or seat that is activated and in use with a unique logical address on an enterprise telephony voice system.

Tele-presence

Enhanced Video, audio and information conferencing with the aim of minimizing the perception limitations of present electronic communication such as video conferencing compared with face-to-face meetings.

Terminal

A device, combining keyboard and display screen, that communicates with a computer. Terminals are divided into different classes depending on whether they are able to process data on their own.

Terminal equipment

Any fixed or mobile apparatus, including telephone handsets, private branch exchange (PBX) switching equipment, key and hybrid telephone systems, and add-on devices, that are discharged to the customer or subscriber and are either physically located on that customer's property or are generally carried on the customer's person. Gross expenses or gross revenues for customer equipment & accessories represents the total expense or revenue associated with these items before subsidies or other offsetting charges or revenues.

Terminating call

A call received by a subscriber.

Terminating minute

One billed minute of conversation time on a call received by a subscriber.

Terrestrial

A network segment which is entirely on land and uses neither satellites nor submarine cables. Terrestrial network technologies used in this way include microwave, twisted copper pair, coaxial I cable, and optical fibre, among others.

Third Party Internet Access (TPIA)

Service provided to Internet Access Providers for the purpose of providing Internet Access over Cable Data networks, as mandated in Telecom Decision 99-8 and implemented in accordance to Telecom Order 2000-789. See Cable Modem.

Throughput

A computer term for the volume of work or information flowing through a system. Particularly meaningful in information storage and retrieval systems, in which throughput is measured in units such as accesses per hour.

Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA -nonGSM)

A digital air interface technology which assigns unique time-slots to each user's communication, allowing real-time separation by the sender and reconstruction by the recipient of each communication within a session, and facilitating mobile telecom services which include interoperability with the wireline PSTN (public switched telephone network). Although GSM and, to a certain extent, ESMR are TDMA-based mobile communications protocol, mobile PSTN-connected voice communications may also use non-GSM TDMA implementations, especially the IS-136 specification. Most non-GSM TDMA implementations are so-called "second generation" (2G) wireless protocols, including the 1900 MHz implementation used to delivered PCS services.

Time out

The set time period before a terminal system performs some action.

Touch sensitive

Refers to the technology that enables a system to identify a point of contact on the screen by coordinates and transmit that information to a program.

Touchtone

A generic term for Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTM F) signaling by means of pressing buttons on a touchtone telephone. A system for signaling dialed numbers in the PSTN in such a way as to minimize attenuation and interference and to prevent the human voice from inadvertently imitating signaling digits; each DTMF signal consists of two simultaneous tones, one from a set of four possible low-frequency (697-941 Hz) tones and one from a set of four possible high-frequency (1209-1633 Hz) tones. Touchtone service is bundled into voice wireline and mobile charges by most providers; some voice wireline providers break out touchtone as a separate line item, however, including providers which make touchtone an optional service. Regardless of individual provider price structure, however, touchtone revenues are included when calculating local rate revenues.

Traffic cap

A notional limit on the amount of traffic which a subscriber may pass through a connection service, especially an Internet access. The traffic cap is the point at which paidfor connectivity services are exceeded and additional traffic becomes subject to overage charges.

Transparency

If a signal passes through a network or facility unchanged, that network or facility is said to be transparent to it.

Transported minute

In international PSTN communications, one minute of transported international traffic is a minute of traffic carried by the reporting service provider across international borders. The transported minute's country of termination is the country in which the transported minute was taken off the originating provider's network, either through interconnection with another service provider, or through termination on customer equipment.

Trojan Horse

When introduced to the system, the Trojan horse has an unauthorized function in addition to its authorized function. A relay that also copies messages to an unauthorized channel is a Trojan Horse.

Twisted-pair copper wire

Is especially common in PSTN network access lines and is composed of two independently insulated wires twisted around one another.

Two-way

Full duplex; a communications service capable of transmitting in both directions simultaneously within the same physical or logical network segment.

Universal access

Refers to reasonable telecommunication access for all. Includes universal service for those that can afford individual telephone service and widespread provision of public telephones within a reasonable distance of others.

Upstream

In Internet access, traffic originating-at the customer end and travelling towards the service provider, possibly for transit to other points on the Internet.

Unbundled loop

Access to the full and exclusive use of an alreadyexisting network access line which is monopoly controlled,which is required as an input to provide services, and which cannot be duplicated economically or technically. An unbundled loop is a pair of wires that winds its way from the central office to the customer's premises. This access is usually provided in return for fixed and/or recurring compensation.

Uniform Recourse Locator (URL)

Is the character string that identifies an Internet document's exact name and location

Video distribution

Equipment used in the provisioning of broadcast distribution services.

Video-over-IP

A one-way telecommunications service that allows video images and audio to be transmitted to one or more locations using the Internet protocol, or a twoway telecommunications service that allows live video images and speech of participants in a session, such as a conference, to be transmitted between two or more locations using the Internet protocol.

Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Is a set of systems that, regardless of higher-layer addressing or location, is designated as a logical LAN and treated as a set of contiguous systems on a single LAN segment.

Virtual Machine (VM)

Is a software implementation of a hardware-like architecture, which executes predefined instructions in a fashion similar to a physical central processing unit (CPU).

Virtual network operator (VNO)

Is an entity that does not own a telecom network infrastructure but provides telecom services by purchasing capacity from telecom carriers.

Virtual reality (VR)

Provides a computergenerated 3D environment that surrounds a user and responds to that individual's actions in a natural way, usually through immersive head-mounted displays and head tracking. Gloves providing hand tracking and haptic (touch sensitive) feedback may be used as well.

Voice application

Any application or service which relies upon voice communications, including PSTN voice, also known as POTS ("plain old telephone service"); features, such as voice mail; services, such as teleconferencing; and audiotext.

Voice backbone

The set of all network connections established between the toll and tandem and toll-tandem switches that move aggregated voice and fax traffic between PSTN terminals, regardless of the protocols or equipment or facilities used to do so. Voice backbones are measured as series of switch-to-switch links, where each link is assigned a discrete capacity based on the real or average estimated capacity (in Mbps) dedicated to moving voice traffic across that link.

Voice over IP (VolP)

A service or capability utilizing both hardware and software that enables users to employ IP networks, such as the Internet, as the transmission medium for voice communication. (See also IP telephony).

Voice wireline

Fixed user access to the PSTN over a PSTN-interconnected network access line which allows direct-dial communications to be established, regardless of whether the facility is used for voice, fax, dial-up Internet, or other services carried from customer premise to a switch in the 0-4000 KHz range. Voice wireline service may be provisioned over traditional telco copper, coaxial cable, fixed wireless, and other circuits. See also local calling area.

VolP soft switches and gateway

Switching, signaling, routing and processing equipment used in the provisioning of voice telecommunications services using Internet Protocols.

Vulnerability

Any weakness that could be exploited to violate a system or the information it contains

Wavelength

The distance between a point on one lightwave and the point of corresponding phase on the following lightwave, measured in nanometers. In conjunction with a technique called wavelength division multiplexing, lightwaves can be divided into wavelength portions and deployed as a series of communications channels similar to virtual clear- channel circuits. Although the bandwidth supplied by these channels is a function of the equipment deployed at their ends, most commercial wavelength products are offered in standard bandwidth increments, especially 2.5 Gbps and 10 Gbps.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

Is a method of transmitting multiple signals at various wavelengths of light simultaneously over a single fibre optic strand; this is utilized to improve the capacity of the fibre.

Web crawler

A piece of software (also called a spider) designed to follow hyperlinks to their completion and to return to previously visited Internet addresses.

Web hosting

A service in which a vendor offers the housing of businessto-business (B2B) or business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce websites via vendor-owned shared or dedicated servers and applications for enterprises at the provider-controlled facilities.

Web server

The central location that hosts Web pages or a website and enables a remote "client" (system or program) to access the material held.

Website

Is a collection of files accessed through a web address, covering a particular theme or subject, and managed by a particular person or organization.

Wholesale

Provision of a telecommunications service or facility to a service provider, regardless of whether that service provider rebills the service or facility to another entity or uses that service or facility internally to support the services it bills.

Wideband

On a point-to-point telecom link, two-way capabilities with speed in at least one direction of greater than 64 Kbps up to and including 1.544 Mbps. See also bandwidth, broadband, narrowband.

Wireless

Generic term for mobile communication services which do not use fixed-line networks for direct access to the subscriber.

Wireless Application Protocol

A transaction-oriented specification for sending and receiving information, content, and service-specific data over wireless networks

Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)

A mark of interoperability among devices adhering to the 802.11b specification for Wireless LANs from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). However, the term Wi-Fi is sometimes mistakenly used as a generic term for wireless LAN.

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)

Also known as Wireless LAN or Radio LAN. A wireless network whereby a user can connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless (radio) connection, as an alternative to a wired local area network. The most popular standard for wireless LANs is the IEEE 802.11 series.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

Is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. A WSN system incorporates a gateway that provides wireless connectivity back to the wired world and distributed nodes.

World Wide Web (WWW)

1) Technically refers to the hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers that allow text, graphics, and sound files to be mixed together. 

​2) Loosely refers to all types of resources that can be accessed.

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